According to the Brittanica, Orazio Gentileschi (1562-1639) whose,
Orazio had a daughter named Artemisia (1593-1652/53) who was also a painter. According to the Brittanica,original name ORAZIO LOMI Italian Baroque painter, one of the more important painters who came under the influence of Caravaggio and who was one of the more successful interpreters of his style.
Gentileschi first studied with his half brother Aurelio Lomi. At some time in the late 1570s or early 1580s he went to Rome, where, with the landscape painter Agostino Tassi, he painted frescoes in churches of Santa Maria Maggiore, San Giovanni Laterano, and Santa Nicola in Carcere from about 1590 to 1600, executing figures for Tassi's landscapes. In the first years of the 17th century Gentileschi came under the influence of Caravaggio, also in Rome at the time. His paintings of this period (e.g., "David and Goliath," 1610?, and "St. Cecilia and the Angel," 1610?) employ Caravaggio's use of dramatic, unconventional gesture and monumental composition, his uncompromising realism and contemporary representation of figure types, and to some extent his strong chiaroscuro, or light-and-dark contrast. Shortly afterward Gentileschi developed a Tuscan lyricism foreign to Caravaggio's almost brutal vitality, a lighter palette, and a more precise treatment reminiscent of his Mannerist beginnings. From 1621 to 1623 Gentileschi was in Genoa, where he painted his masterpiece, "The Annunciation" (1623), a work of consummate grace that shows a weakening of Caravaggio's influence. The composition still depends on dramatic gestures, here of the Virgin and the angel, and there is still a strong immediacy to the incident and an absence of idealization. The mood, however, is more restrained and lyrical than in his earlier works, the colours are light, and the earlier chiaroscuro is absent. After a stay in France, Gentileschi traveled to England in 1626 at the invitation of King Charles I; he remained there as court painter for the rest of his life, his work becoming increasingly conventional and decorative. His last major work is an ambitious series of ceiling paintings for the Queen's House, Greenwich, painted probably after 1635, and now in Marlborough House, London.
Italian painter, daughter of Orazio Gentileschi, who was a major follower of the revolutionary Baroque painter Caravaggio. She was an important second-generation proponent of Caravaggio's dramatic realism. A pupil of her father and of his friend, the landscape painter Agostino Tassi, she painted at first in a style indistinguishable from her father's somewhat lyrical interpretation of Caravaggio's example. Her first known work is "Susanna and the Elders" (1610), an accomplished work long attributed to her father. She was raped by Tassi, and, when he did not fulfill his promise to marry her, Orazio Gentileschi in 1612 brought him to trial. During that event she herself was forced to give evidence under torture. She married a Florentine shortly after the trial and joined the Academy of Design in Florence in 1616. While in Florence she began to develop her own distinct style. Her colours are more brilliant than her father's, and she continued to employ the tenebrism made popular by Caravaggio long after her father had abandoned that style. Although her compositions were graceful, she was perhaps the most violent of all the Caravaggisti; she illustrated such subjects as the story from the Apocrypha of Judith, the Jewish heroine, beheading Holofernes, an invading general. Artemisia Gentileschi was in Rome for a time and also in Venice. About 1630 she moved to Naples and in 1638-39 visited her father in London. There she painted many portraits and quickly surpassed her father's fame. Later, probably in 1640 or 1641, she settled in Naples, but little is known of the final years of her life.
of Painting or "La Pittura" 1630
Oil on Canvas
Self Portrait of the Artist
with Sisters and Governess. 1555
(The Chess Game)
oil on canvas, 27"x37"
Nardowe Museum, Poznan, Poland
|Form: This self portrait demonstrates her skill as a painter. The angle from which she chose to paint herself is an awkward one and she almost certainly had to set up several mirrors in order to bounce her reflection around until she was able to see herself. She uses many of the standard formal schemas of Caravaggio's work, tenebrism, a low key earth toned palette and heightened chiaroscuro. Like Caravaggio she also has a fine command of painting drapery. Iconography: According to the Webgalleries website, |
An example of Gentileschi's mature work, this painting depicts the artist not only in a self portrait but also as Pittura, the originator of the art of painting. Artemisia has given us her image, painted in profile, and the attributes of the personification of painting in accordance with Ripa's Iconologia. Around her neck, she wears the golden chain and the mask of imitation. Her disheveled hair depicts the divine frenzy of artistic temperament, and the handling of color on her dress shows Artemisia's skill as an artist. Although other artists have depicted Pittura, Artemisia's portrait is unique because only a female artist would be able to depict herself as the allegory of painting. Until this time, the male artists who worked this theme had to add a female figurehead to represent Ripa's Pittura.Artemisia also updates her depiction almost with the same use of genre as Caravaggio. In this image she dresses her allegorical Pittura as a 17th century woman. Context: Artemisia self portrait is interesting because her depiction of herself is quite different than one might expect a female painter to create. Comparing her self portrait against Sofonisba Anguissola's may give you some insight as to how her past has influenced her life.
Judith Slaying Holofernes c1620
Judith Beheading Holofernes
Oil on Canvas
Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Caravaggio, Judith Slaying Holofernes c1600
Judith with the head of Holofernes c1625
Detroit, Institute of Art Gentileschi's images feel "real." The postures and movement in Gentileschi's images are fluid and naturalistic. One feels the struggle the two women face in trying to escape. Unlike Caravaggio's painting, Judith and Holofernes, Gentileschi's image shows powerful women. In Caravaggio's the servant is an old woman as opposed to the young beautiful and powerful maid accompanying Judith in Gentileschi's images.
Make sure you read Mencher, Liaisons 197-214 Judith and Holofernes
It has been argued that this painting expresses Artemisia's psychological revenge on Tassi. It is, in fact, one of several canvas' which Artemisia based the Judith theme, but the subject matter was a popular one and was treated by many artists throughout the centuries. What makes this painting unique, however, is Artemisia's rendering of Judith as a strong and capable heroine. While many depictions of Judith show her after the slaying of Holofernes, Gentileschi gives us Judith in the act of killing the man. The subject matter is taken from the Book of Judith whereby Judith liberates her people by slaying the evil tyrant. She has entered the enemy camp under the guise of seducing Holofernes and when he falls asleep she hacks off his head with his sword. Carrying back his head in a bag, she presents it to her people, who then go on to defeat the Assyrians. The dark background and single source of light add psychological tension and drama to the scene and cause it to play out beyond the boarders of the canvas. We, as spectators, have become witness to a murder.
There are at least 5 versions of this painting we will be studying by Caravaggio and Gentileschi.
In the twelfth year of the reign of Nabuchodonosor, who
reigned in Nineve, the great city; in the days of Arphaxad,
which reigned over the Medes in Ecbatane,
And built in Ecbatane walls round about of stones hewn three
cubits broad and six cubits long, and made the height of the
wall seventy cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits:
And set the towers thereof upon the gates of it an hundred
cubits high, and the breadth thereof in the foundation
And he made the gates thereof, even gates that were raised to
the height of seventy cubits, and the breadth of them was forty
cubits, for the going forth of his mighty armies, and for the
setting in array of his footmen:
Even in those days king Nabuchodonosor made war with king
Arphaxad in the great plain, which is the plain in the borders
And there came unto him all they that dwelt in the hill
country, and all that dwelt by Euphrates, and Tigris and
Hydaspes, and the plain of Arioch the king of the Elymeans, and
very many nations of the sons of Chelod, assembled themselves to
Then Nabuchodonosor king of the Assyrians sent unto all that
dwelt in Persia, and to all that dwelt westward, and to those
that dwelt in Cilicia, and Damascus, and Libanus, and
Antilibanus, and to all that dwelt upon the sea coast,
And to those among the nations that were of Carmel, and
Galaad, and the higher Galilee, and the great plain of Esdrelom,
And to all that were in Samaria and the cities thereof, and
beyond Jordan unto Jerusalem, and Betane, and Chelus, and Kades,
and the river of Egypt, and Taphnes, and Ramesse, and all the
land of Gesem,
Until ye come beyond Tanis and Memphis, and to all the
inhabitants of Egypt, until ye come to the borders of Ethiopia.
But all the inhabitants of the land made light of the
commandment of Nabuchodonosor king of the Assyrians, neither
went they with him to the battle; for they were not afraid of
him: yea, he was before them as one man, and they sent away his
ambassadors from them without effect, and with disgrace.
Therefore Nabuchodonosor was very angry with all this
country, and sware by his throne and kingdom, that he would
surely be avenged upon all those coasts of Cilicia, and
Damascus, and Syria, and that he would slay with the sword all
the inhabitants of the land of Moab, and the children of Ammon,
and all Judea, and all that were in Egypt, till ye come to the
borders of the two seas.
Then he marched in battle array with his power against king
Arphaxad in the seventeenth year, and he prevailed in his
battle: for he overthrew all the power of Arphaxad, and all his
horsemen, and all his chariots,
And became lord of his cities, and came unto Ecbatane, and
took the towers, and spoiled the streets thereof, and turned the
beauty thereof into shame.
He took also Arphaxad in the mountains of Ragau, and smote
him through with his darts, and destroyed him utterly that day.
So he returned afterward to Nineve, both he and all his
company of sundry nations being a very great multitude of men of
war, and there he took his ease, and banqueted, both he and his
army, an hundred and twenty days.
And in the eighteenth year, the two and twentieth day of the
first month, there was talk in the house of Nabuchodonosor king
of the Assyrians that he should, as he said, avenge himself on
all the earth.
So he called unto him all his officers, and all his nobles,
and communicated with them his secret counsel, and concluded the
afflicting of the whole earth out of his own mouth.
Then they decreed to destroy all flesh, that did not obey the
commandment of his mouth.
And when he had ended his counsel, Nabuchodonosor king of the
Assyrians called Holofernes the chief captain of his army, which
was next unto him, and said unto him.
Thus saith the great king, the lord of the whole earth,
Behold, thou shalt go forth from my presence, and take with thee
men that trust in their own strength, of footmen an hundred and
twenty thousand; and the number of horses with their riders
And thou shalt go against all the west country, because they
disobeyed my commandment.
And thou shalt declare unto that they prepare for me earth
and water: for I will go forth in my wrath against them and will
cover the whole face of the earth with the feet of mine army,
and I will give them for a spoil unto them:
So that their slain shall fill their valleys and brooks and
the river shall be filled with their dead, till it overflow:
And I will lead them captives to the utmost parts of all the
Thou therefore shalt go forth. and take beforehand for me all
their coasts: and if they will yield themselves unto thee, thou
shalt reserve them for me till the day of their punishment.
But concerning them that rebel, let not thine eye spare them;
but put them to the slaughter, and spoil them wheresoever thou
For as I live, and by the power of my kingdom, whatsoever I
have spoken, that will I do by mine hand.
And take thou heed that thou transgress none of the
commandments of thy lord, but accomplish them fully, as I have
commanded thee, and defer not to do them.
Then Holofernes went forth from the presence of his lord, and
called ail the governors and captains, and the officers of the
army of Assur;
And he mustered the chosen men for the battle, as his lord
had commanded him, unto an hundred and twenty thousand, and
twelve thousand archers on horseback;
And he ranged them, as a great army is ordered for the war.
And he took camels and asses for their carriages, a very
great number; and sheep and oxen and goats without number for
And plenty of victual for every man of the army, and very
much gold and silver out of the king's house.
Then he went forth and all his power to go before king
Nabuchodonosor in the voyage, and to cover all the face of the
earth westward with their chariots, and horsemen, and their
A great number also sundry countries came with them like
locusts, and like the sand of the earth: for the multitude was
And they went forth of Nineve three days' journey toward the
plain of Bectileth, and pitched from Bectileth near the mountain
which is at the left hand of the upper Cilicia.
Then he took all his army, his footmen, and horsemen and
chariots, and went from thence into the hill country;
And destroyed Phud and Lud, and spoiled all the children of
Rasses, and the children of Israel, which were toward the
wilderness at the south of the land of the Chellians.
Then he went over Euphrates, and went through Mesopotamia,
and destroyed all the high cities that were upon the river
Arbonai, till ye come to the sea.
And he took the borders of Cilicia, and killed all that
resisted him, and came to the borders of Japheth, which were
toward the south, over against Arabia.
He compassed also all the children of Madian, and burned up
their tabernacles, and spoiled their sheepcotes.
Then he went down into the plain of Damascus in the time of
wheat harvest, and burnt up all their fields, and destroyed
their flocks and herds, also he spoiled their cities, and
utterly wasted their countries, and smote all their young men
with the edge of the sword.
Therefore the fear and dread of him fell upon all the
inhabitants of the sea coasts, which were in Sidon and Tyrus,
and them that dwelt in Sur and Ocina, and all that dwelt in
Jemnaan; and they that dwelt in Azotus and Ascalon feared him
So they sent ambassadors unto him to treat of peace, saying,
Behold, we the servants of Nabuchodonosor the great king lie
before thee; use us as shall be good in thy sight.
Behold, our houses, and all our places, and all our fields of
wheat, and flocks, and herds, and all the lodges of our tents
lie before thy face; use them as it pleaseth thee.
Behold, even our cities and the inhabitants thereof are thy
servants; come and deal with them as seemeth good unto thee.
So the men came to Holofernes, and declared unto him after
Then came he down toward the sea coast, both he and his army,
and set garrisons in the high cities, and took out of them
chosen men for aid.
So they and all the country round about received them with
garlands, with dances, and with timbrels.
Yet he did cast down their frontiers, and cut down their
groves: for he had decreed to destroy all the gods of the land,
that all nations should worship Nabuchodonosor only, and that
all tongues and tribes should call upon him as god.
Also he came over against Esdraelon near unto Judea, over
against the great strait of Judea.
And he pitched between Geba and Scythopolis, and there he
tarried a whole month, that he might gather together all the
carriages of his army.
Now the children of Israel, that dwelt in Judea, heard all
that Holofernes the chief captain of Nabuchodonosor king of the
Assyrians had done to the nations, and after what manner he had
spoiled all their temples, and brought them to nought.
Therefore they were exceedingly afraid of him, and were
troubled for Jerusalem, and for the temple of the Lord their God:
For they were newly returned from the captivity, and all the
people of Judea were lately gathered together: and the vessels,
and the altar, and the house, were sanctified after the
Therefore they sent into all the coasts of Samaria, and the
villages and to Bethoron, and Belmen, and Jericho, and to Choba,
and Esora, and to the valley of Salem:
And possessed themselves beforehand of all the tops of the
high mountains, and fortified the villages that were in them,
and laid up victuals for the provision of war: for their fields
were of late reaped.
Also Joacim the high priest, which was in those days in
Jerusalem, wrote to them that dwelt in Bethulia, and
Betomestham, which is over against Esdraelon toward the open
country, near to Dothaim,
Charging them to keep the passages of the hill country: for
by them there was an entrance into Judea, and it was easy to
stop them that would come up, because the passage was straight,
for two men at the most.
And the children of Israel did as Joacim the high priest had
commanded them, with the ancients of all the people of Israel,
which dwelt at Jerusalem.
Then every man of Israel cried to God with great fervency,
and with great vehemency did they humble their souls:
Both they, and their wives and their children, and their
cattle, and every stranger and hireling, and their servants
bought with money, put sackcloth upon their loins.
Thus every man and women, and the little children, and the
inhabitants of Jerusalem, fell before the temple, and cast ashes
upon their heads, and spread out their sackcloth before the face
of the Lord: also they put sackcloth about the altar,
And cried to the God of Israel all with one consent
earnestly, that he would not give their children for a prey, and
their wives for a spoil, and the cities of their inheritance to
destruction, and the sanctuary to profanation and reproach, and
for the nations to rejoice at.
So God heard their prayers, and looked upon their
afflictions: for the people fasted many days in all Judea and
Jerusalem before the sanctuary of the Lord Almighty.
And Joacim the high priest, and all the priests that stood
before the Lord, and they which ministered unto the Lord, had
their loins girt with sackcloth, and offered the daily burnt
offerings, with the vows and free gifts of the people,
And had ashes on their mitres, and cried unto the Lord with
all their power, that he would look upon all the house of Israel
Then was it declared to Holofernes, the chief captain of the
army of Assur, that the children of Israel had prepared for war,
and had shut up the passages of the hill country, and had
fortified all the tops of the high hills and had laid
impediments in the champaign countries:
Wherewith he was very angry, and called all the princes of
Moab, and the captains of Ammon, and all the governors of the
And he said unto them, Tell me now, ye sons of Chanaan, who
this people is, that dwelleth in the hill country, and what are
the cities that they inhabit, and what is the multitude of their
army, and wherein is their power and strength, and what king is
set over them, or captain of their army;
And why have they determined not to come and meet me, more
than all the inhabitants of the west.
Then said Achior, the captain of all the sons of Ammon, Let
my lord now hear a word from the mouth of thy servant, and I
will declare unto thee the truth concerning this people, which
dwelleth near thee, and inhabiteth the hill countries: and there
shall no lie come out of the mouth of thy servant.
This people are descended of the Chaldeans:
And they sojourned heretofore in Mesopotamia, because they
would not follow the gods of their fathers, which were in the
land of Chaldea.
For they left the way of their ancestors, and worshipped the
God of heaven, the God whom they knew: so they cast them out
from the face of their gods, and they fled into Mesopotamia, and
sojourned there many days.
Then their God commanded them to depart from the place where
they sojourned, and to go into the land of Chanaan: where they
dwelt, and were increased with gold and silver, and with very
But when a famine covered all the land of Chanaan, they went
down into Egypt, and sojourned there, while they were nourished,
and became there a great multitude, so that one could not number
Therefore the king of Egypt rose up against them, and dealt
subtilly with them, and brought them low with labouring in
brick, and made them slaves.
Then they cried unto their God, and he smote all the land of
Egypt with incurable plagues: so the Egyptians cast them out of
And God dried the Red sea before them,
And brought them to mount Sina, and Cades-Barne, and cast
forth all that dwelt in the wilderness.
So they dwelt in the land of the Amorites, and they destroyed
by their strength all them of Esebon, and passing over Jordan
they possessed all the hill country.
And they cast forth before them the Chanaanite, the
Pherezite, the Jebusite, and the Sychemite, and all the
Gergesites, and they dwelt in that country many days.
And whilst they sinned not before their God, they prospered,
because the God that hateth iniquity was with them.
But when they departed from the way which he appointed them,
they were destroyed in many battles very sore, and were led
captives into a land that was not their's, and the temple of
their God was cast to the ground, and their cities were taken by
But now are they returned to their God, and are come up from
the places where they were scattered, and have possessed
Jerusalem, where their sanctuary is, and are seated in the hill
country; for it was desolate.
Now therefore, my lord and governor, if there be any error
against this people, and they sin against their God, let us
consider that this shall be their ruin, and let us go up, and we
shall overcome them.
But if there be no iniquity in their nation, let my lord now
pass by, lest their Lord defend them, and their God be for them,
and we become a reproach before all the world.
And when Achior had finished these sayings, all the people
standing round about the tent murmured, and the chief men of
Holofernes, and all that dwelt by the sea side, and in Moab,
spake that he should kill him.
For, say they, we will not be afraid of the face of the
children of Israel: for, lo, it is a people that have no
strength nor power for a strong battle
Now therefore, lord Holofernes, we will go up, and they shall
be a prey to be devoured of all thine army.
And when the tumult of men that were about the council was
ceased, Holofernes the chief captain of the army of Assur said
unto Achior and all the Moabites before all the company of other
And who art thou, Achior, and the hirelings of Ephraim, that
thou hast prophesied against us as to day, and hast said, that
we should not make war with the people of Israel, because their
God will defend them? and who is God but Nabuchodonosor?
He will send his power, and will destroy them from the face
of the earth, and their God shall not deliver them: but we his
servants will destroy them as one man; for they are not able to
sustain the power of our horses.
For with them we will tread them under foot, and their
mountains shall be drunken with their blood, and their fields
shall be filled with their dead bodies, and their footsteps
shall not be able to stand before us, for they shall utterly
perish, saith king Nabuchodonosor, lord of all the earth: for he
said, None of my words shall be in vain.
And thou, Achior, an hireling of Ammon, which hast spoken
these words in the day of thine iniquity, shalt see my face no
more from this day, until I take vengeance of this nation that
came out of Egypt.
And then shall the sword of mine army, and the multitude of
them that serve me, pass through thy sides, and thou shalt fall
among their slain, when I return.
Now therefore my servants shall bring thee back into the hill
country, and shall set thee in one of the cities of the
And thou shalt not perish, till thou be destroyed with them.
And if thou persuade thyself in thy mind that they shall be
taken, let not thy countenance fall: I have spoken it, and none
of my words shall be in vain.
Then Holofernes commanded his servants, that waited in his
tent, to take Achior, and bring him to Bethulia, and deliver him
into the hands of the children of Israel.
So his servants took him, and brought him out of the camp
into the plain, and they went from the midst of the plain into
the hill country, and came unto the fountains that were under
And when the men of the city saw them, they took up their
weapons, and went out of the city to the top of the hill: and
every man that used a sling kept them from coming up by casting
of stones against them.
Nevertheless having gotten privily under the hill, they bound
Achior, and cast him down, and left him at the foot of the hill,
and returned to their lord.
But the Israelites descended from their city, and came unto
him, and loosed him, and brought him to Bethulia, and presented
him to the governors of the city:
Which were in those days Ozias the son of Micha, of the tribe
of Simeon, and Chabris the son of Gothoniel, and Charmis the son
And they called together all the ancients of the city, and
all their youth ran together, and their women, to the assembly,
and they set Achior in the midst of all their people. Then Ozias
asked him of that which was done.
And he answered and declared unto them the words of the
council of Holofernes, and all the words that he had spoken in
the midst of the princes of Assur, and whatsoever Holofernes had
spoken proudly against the house of Israel.
Then the people fell down and worshipped God, and cried unto
O Lord God of heaven, behold their pride, and pity the low
estate of our nation, and look upon the face of those that are
sanctified unto thee this day.
Then they comforted Achior, and praised him greatly.
And Ozias took him out of the assembly unto his house, and
made a feast to the elders; and they called on the God of Israel
all that night for help.
The next day Holofernes commanded all his army, and all his
people which were come to take his part, that they should remove
their camp against Bethulia, to take aforehand the ascents of
the hill country, and to make war against the children of
Then their strong men removed their camps in that day, and
the army of the men of war was an hundred and seventy thousand
footmen, and twelve thousand horsemen, beside the baggage, and
other men that were afoot among them, a very great multitude.
And they camped in the valley near unto Bethulia, by the
fountain, and they spread themselves in breadth over Dothaim
even to Belmaim, and in length from Bethulia unto Cynamon, which
is over against Esdraelon.
Now the children of Israel, when they saw the multitude of
them, were greatly troubled, and said every one to his
neighbour, Now will these men lick up the face of the earth; for
neither the high mountains, nor the valleys, nor the hills, are
able to bear their weight.
Then every man took up his weapons of war, and when they had
kindled fires upon their towers, they remained and watched all
But in the second day Holofernes brought forth all his
horsemen in the sight of the children of Israel which were in
And viewed the passages up to the city, and came to the
fountains of their waters, and took them, and set garrisons of
men of war over them, and he himself removed toward his people.
Then came unto him all the chief of the children of Esau, and
all the governors of the people of Moab, and the captains of the
sea coast, and said,
Let our lord now hear a word, that there be not an overthrow
in thine army.
For this people of the children of Israel do not trust in
their spears, but in the height of the mountains wherein they
dwell, because it is not easy to come up to the tops of their
Now therefore, my lord, fight not against them in battle
array, and there shall not so much as one man of thy people
Remain in thy camp, and keep all the men of thine army, and
let thy servants get into their hands the fountain of water,
which issueth forth of the foot of the mountain:
For all the inhabitants of Bethulia have their water thence;
so shall thirst kill them, and they shall give up their city,
and we and our people shall go up to the tops of the mountains
that are near, and will camp upon them, to watch that none go
out of the city.
So they and their wives and their children shall be consumed
with fire, and before the sword come against them, they shall be
overthrown in the streets where they dwell.
Thus shalt thou render them an evil reward; because they
rebelled, and met not thy person peaceably.
And these words pleased Holofernes and all his servants, and
he appointed to do as they had spoken.
So the camp of the children of Ammon departed, and with them
five thousand of the Assyrians, and they pitched in the valley,
and took the waters, and the fountains of the waters of the
children of Israel.
Then the children of Esau went up with the children of Ammon,
and camped in the hill country over against Dothaim: and they
sent some of them toward the south, and toward the east over
against Ekrebel, which is near unto Chusi, that is upon the
brook Mochmur; and the rest of the army of the Assyrians camped
in the plain, and covered the face of the whole land; and their
tents and carriages were pitched to a very great multitude.
Then the children of Israel cried unto the Lord their God,
because their heart failed, for all their enemies had compassed
them round about, and there was no way to escape out from among
Thus all the company of Assur remained about them, both their
footmen, chariots, and horsemen, four and thirty days, so that
all their vessels of water failed all the inhibitants of
And the cisterns were emptied, and they had not water to
drink their fill for one day; for they gave them drink by
Therefore their young children were out of heart, and their
women and young men fainted for thirst, and fell down in the
streets of the city, and by the passages of the gates, and there
was no longer any strength in them.
Then all the people assembled to Ozias, and to the chief of
the city, both young men, and women, and children, and cried
with a loud voice, and said before all the elders,
God be judge between us and you: for ye have done us great
injury, in that ye have not required peace of the children of
For now we have no helper: but God hath sold us into their
hands, that we should be thrown down before them with thirst and
Now therefore call them unto you, and deliver the whole city
for a spoil to the people of Holofernes, and to all his army.
For it is better for us to be made a spoil unto them, than to
die for thirst: for we will be his servants, that our souls may
live, and not see the death of our infants before our eyes, nor
our wives nor our children to die.
We take to witness against you the heaven and the earth, and
our God and Lord of our fathers, which punisheth us according to
our sins and the sins of our fathers, that he do not according
as we have said this day.
Then there was great weeping with one consent in the midst of
the assembly; and they cried unto the Lord God with a loud
Then said Ozias to them, Brethren, be of good courage, let us
yet endure five days, in the which space the Lord our God may
turn his mercy toward us; for he will not forsake us utterly.
And if these days pass, and there come no help unto us, I
will do according to your word.
And he dispersed the people, every one to their own charge;
and they went unto the walls and towers of their city, and sent
the women and children into their houses: and they were very low
brought in the city.
Now at that time Judith heard thereof, which was the daughter
of Merari, the son of Ox, the son of Joseph, the son of Ozel,
the son of Elcia, the son of Ananias, the son of Gedeon, the son
of Raphaim, the son of Acitho, the son of Eliu, the son of
Eliab, the son of Nathanael, the son of Samael, the son of
Salasadal, the son of Israel.
And Manasses was her husband, of her tribe and kindred, who
died in the barley harvest.
For as he stood overseeing them that bound sheaves in the
field, the heat came upon his head, and he fell on his bed, and
died in the city of Bethulia: and they buried him with his
fathers in the field between Dothaim and Balamo.
So Judith was a widow in her house three years and four
And she made her a tent upon the top of her house, and put on
sackcloth upon her loins and ware her widow's apparel.
And she fasted all the days of her widowhood, save the eves
of the sabbaths, and the sabbaths, and the eves of the new
moons, and the new moons and the feasts and solemn days of the
house of Israel.
She was also of a goodly countenance, and very beautiful to
behold: and her husband Manasses had left her gold, and silver,
and menservants and maidservants, and cattle, and lands; and she
remained upon them.
And there was none that gave her an ill word; ar she feared
Now when she heard the evil words of the people against the
governor, that they fainted for lack of water; for Judith had
heard all the words that Ozias had spoken unto them, and that he
had sworn to deliver the city unto the Assyrians after five
Then she sent her waitingwoman, that had the government of
all things that she had, to call Ozias and Chabris and Charmis,
the ancients of the city.
And they came unto her, and she said unto them, Hear me now,
O ye governors of the inhabitants of Bethulia: for your words
that ye have spoken before the people this day are not right,
touching this oath which ye made and pronounced between God and
you, and have promised to deliver the city to our enemies,
unless within these days the Lord turn to help you.
And now who are ye that have tempted God this day, and stand
instead of God among the children of men?
And now try the Lord Almighty, but ye shall never know any
For ye cannot find the depth of the heart of man, neither can
ye perceive the things that he thinketh: then how can ye search
out God, that hath made all these things, and know his mind, or
comprehend his purpose? Nay, my brethren, provoke not the Lord
our God to anger.
For if he will not help us within these five days, he hath
power to defend us when he will, even every day, or to destroy
us before our enemies.
Do not bind the counsels of the Lord our God: for God is not
as man, that he may be threatened; neither is he as the son of
man, that he should be wavering.
Therefore let us wait for salvation of him, and call upon him
to help us, and he will hear our voice, if it please him.
For there arose none in our age, neither is there any now in
these days neither tribe, nor family, nor people, nor city among
us, which worship gods made with hands, as hath been aforetime.
For the which cause our fathers were given to the sword, and
for a spoil, and had a great fall before our enemies.
But we know none other god, therefore we trust that he will
not dispise us, nor any of our nation.
For if we be taken so, all Judea shall lie waste, and our
sanctuary shall be spoiled; and he will require the profanation
thereof at our mouth.
And the slaughter of our brethren, and the captivity of the
country, and the desolation of our inheritance, will he turn
upon our heads among the Gentiles, wheresoever we shall be in
bondage; and we shall be an offence and a reproach to all them
that possess us.
For our servitude shall not be directed to favour: but the
Lord our God shall turn it to dishonour.
Now therefore, O brethren, let us shew an example to our
brethren, because their hearts depend upon us, and the
sanctuary, and the house, and the altar, rest upon us.
Moreover let us give thanks to the Lord our God, which trieth
us, even as he did our fathers.
Remember what things he did to Abraham, and how he tried
Isaac, and what happened to Jacob in Mesopotamia of Syria, when
he kept the sheep of Laban his mother's brother.
For he hath not tried us in the fire, as he did them, for the
examination of their hearts, neither hath he taken vengeance on
us: but the Lord doth scourge them that come near unto him, to
Then said Ozias to her, All that thou hast spoken hast thou
spoken with a good heart, and there is none that may gainsay thy
For this is not the first day wherein thy wisdom is
manifested; but from the beginning of thy days all the people
have known thy understanding, because the disposition of thine
heart is good.
But the people were very thirsty, and compelled us to do unto
them as we have spoken, and to bring an oath upon ourselves,
which we will not break.
Therefore now pray thou for us, because thou art a godly
woman, and the Lord will send us rain to fill our cisterns, and
we shall faint no more.
Then said Judith unto them, Hear me, and I will do a thing,
which shall go throughout all generations to the children of our
Ye shall stand this night in the gate, and I will go forth
with my waitingwoman: and within the days that ye have promised
to deliver the city to our enemies the Lord will visit Israel by
But enquire not ye of mine act: for I will not declare it
unto you, till the things be finished that I do.
Then said Ozias and the princes unto her, Go in peace, and
the Lord God be before thee, to take vengeance on our enemies.
So they returned from the tent, and went to their wards.
Judith fell upon her face, and put ashes upon her head, and
uncovered the sackcloth wherewith she was clothed; and about the
time that the incense of that evening was offered in Jerusalem
in the house of the Lord Judith cried with a loud voice, and
O Lord God of my father Simeon, to whom thou gavest a sword
to take vengeance of the strangers, who loosened the girdle of a
maid to defile her, and discovered the thigh to her shame, and
polluted her virginity to her reproach; for thou saidst, It
shall not be so; and yet they did so:
Wherefore thou gavest their rulers to be slain, so that they
dyed their bed in blood, being deceived, and smotest the
servants with their lords, and the lords upon their thrones;
And hast given their wives for a prey, and their daughters to
be captives, and all their spoils to be divided among thy dear
children; which were moved with thy zeal, and abhorred the
pollution of their blood, and called upon thee for aid: O God, O
my God, hear me also a widow.
For thou hast wrought not only those things, but also the
things which fell out before, and which ensued after; thou hast
thought upon the things which are now, and which are to come.
Yea, what things thou didst determine were ready at hand, and
said, Lo, we are here: for all thy ways are prepared, and thy
judgments are in thy foreknowledge.
For, behold, the Assyrians are multiplied in their power;
they are exalted with horse and man; they glory in the strength
of their footmen; they trust in shield, and spear, and bow, and
sling; and know not that thou art the Lord that breakest the
battles: the Lord is thy name.
Throw down their strength in thy power, and bring down their
force in thy wrath: for they have purposed to defile thy
sanctuary, and to pollute the tabernacle where thy glorious name
resteth and to cast down with sword the horn of thy altar.
Behold their pride, and send thy wrath upon their heads: give
into mine hand, which am a widow, the power that I have
Smite by the deceit of my lips the servant with the prince,
and the prince with the servant: break down their stateliness by
the hand of a woman.
For thy power standeth not in multitude nor thy might in
strong men: for thou art a God of the afflicted, an helper of
the oppressed, an upholder of the weak, a protector of the
forlorn, a saviour of them that are without hope.
I pray thee, I pray thee, O God of my father, and God of the
inheritance of Israel, Lord of the heavens and earth, Creator of
the waters, king of every creature, hear thou my prayer:
And make my speech and deceit to be their wound and stripe,
who have purposed cruel things against thy covenant, and thy
hallowed house, and against the top of Sion, and against the
house of the possession of thy children.
And make every nation and tribe to acknowledge that thou art
the God of all power and might, and that there is none other
that protecteth the people of Israel but thou.
Now after that she had ceased to cry unto the God of Israel,
and bad made an end of all these words.
She rose where she had fallen down, and called her maid, and
went down into the house in the which she abode in the sabbath
days, and in her feast days,
And pulled off the sackcloth which she had on, and put off
the garments of her widowhood, and washed her body all over with
water, and anointed herself with precious ointment, and braided
the hair of her head, and put on a tire upon it, and put on her
garments of gladness, wherewith she was clad during the life of
Manasses her husband.
And she took sandals upon her feet, and put about her her
bracelets, and her chains, and her rings, and her earrings, and
all her ornaments, and decked herself bravely, to allure the
eyes of all men that should see her.
Then she gave her maid a bottle of wine, and a cruse of oil,
and filled a bag with parched corn, and lumps of figs, and with
fine bread; so she folded all these things together, and laid
them upon her.
Thus they went forth to the gate of the city of Bethulia, and
found standing there Ozias and the ancients of the city, Chabris
And when they saw her, that her countenance was altered, and
her apparel was changed, they wondered at her beauty very
greatly, and said unto her.
The God, the God of our fathers give thee favour, and
accomplish thine enterprizes to the glory of the children of
Israel, and to the exaltation of Jerusalem. Then they worshipped
And she said unto them, Command the gates of the city to be
opened unto me, that I may go forth to accomplish the things
whereof ye have spoken with me. So they commanded the young men
to open unto her, as she had spoken.
And when they had done so, Judith went out, she, and her maid
with her; and the men of the city looked after her, until she
was gone down the mountain, and till she had passed the valley,
and could see her no more.
Thus they went straight forth in the valley: and the first
watch of the Assyrians met her,
And took her, and asked her, Of what people art thou? and
whence comest thou? and whither goest thou? And she said, I am a
woman of the Hebrews, and am fled from them: for they shall be
given you to be consumed:
And I am coming before Holofernes the chief captain of your
army, to declare words of truth; and I will shew him a way,
whereby he shall go, and win all the hill country, without
losing the body or life of any one of his men.
Now when the men heard her words, and beheld her countenance,
they wondered greatly at her beauty, and said unto her,
Thou hast saved thy life, in that thou hast hasted to come
down to the presence of our lord: now therefore come to his
tent, and some of us shall conduct thee, until they have
delivered thee to his hands.
And when thou standest before him, be not afraid in thine
heart, but shew unto him according to thy word; and he will
entreat thee well.
Then they chose out of them an hundred men to accompany her
and her maid; and they brought her to the tent of Holofernes.
Then was there a concourse throughout all the camp: for her
coming was noised among the tents, and they came about her, as
she stood without the tent of Holofernes, till they told him of
And they wondered at her beauty, and admired the children of
Israel because of her, and every one said to his neighbour, Who
would despise this people, that have among them such women?
surely it is not good that one man of them be left who being let
go might deceive the whole earth.
And they that lay near Holofernes went out, and all his
servants and they brought her into the tent.
Now Holofernes rested upon his bed under a canopy, which was
woven with purple, and gold, and emeralds, and precious stones.
So they shewed him of her; and he came out before his tent
with silver lamps going before him.
And when Judith was come before him and his servants they all
marvelled at the beauty of her countenance; and she fell down
upon her face, and did reverence unto him: and his servants took
Then said Holofernes unto her, Woman, be of good comfort,
fear not in thine heart: for I never hurt any that was willing
to serve Nabuchodonosor, the king of all the earth.
Now therefore, if thy people that dwelleth in the mountains
had not set light by me, I would not have lifted up my spear
against them: but they have done these things to themselves.
But now tell me wherefore thou art fled from them, and art
come unto us: for thou art come for safeguard; be of good
comfort, thou shalt live this night, and hereafter:
For none shall hurt thee, but entreat thee well, as they do
the servants of king Nabuchodonosor my lord.
Then Judith said unto him, Receive the words of thy servant,
and suffer thine handmaid to speak in thy presence, and I will
declare no lie to my lord this night.
And if thou wilt follow the words of thine handmaid, God will
bring the thing perfectly to pass by thee; and my lord shall not
fail of his purposes.
As Nabuchodonosor king of all the earth liveth, and as his
power liveth, who hath sent thee for the upholding of every
living thing: for not only men shall serve him by thee, but also
the beasts of the field, and the cattle, and the fowls of the
air, shall live by thy power under Nabuchodonosor and all his
For we have heard of thy wisdom and thy policies, and it is
reported in all the earth, that thou only art excellent in all
the kingdom, and mighty in knowledge, and wonderful in feats of
Now as concerning the matter, which Achior did speak in thy
council, we have heard his words; for the men of Bethulia saved
him, and he declared unto them all that he had spoken unto thee.
Therefore, O lord and governor, respect not his word; but lay
it up in thine heart, for it is true: for our nation shall not
be punished, neither can sword prevail against them, except they
sin against their God.
And now, that my lord be not defeated and frustrate of his
purpose, even death is now fallen upon them, and their sin hath
overtaken them, wherewith they will provoke their God to anger
whensoever they shall do that which is not fit to be done:
For their victuals fail them, and all their water is scant,
and they have determined to lay hands upon their cattle, and
purposed to consume all those things, that God hath forbidden
them to eat by his laws:
And are resolved to spend the firstfruits of the the tenths
of wine and oil, which they had sanctified, and reserved for the
priests that serve in Jerusalem before the face of our God; the
which things it is not lawful for any of the people so much as
to touch with their hands.
For they have sent some to Jerusalem, because they also that
dwell there have done the like, to bring them a licence from the
Now when they shall bring them word, they will forthwith do
it, and they shall be given to thee to be destroyed the same
Wherefore I thine handmaid, knowing all this, am fled from
their presence; and God hath sent me to work things with thee,
whereat all the earth shall be astonished, and whosoever shall
For thy servant is religious, and serveth the God of heaven
day and night: now therefore, my lord, I will remain with thee,
and thy servant will go out by night into the valley, and I will
pray unto God, and he will tell me when they have committed
And I will come and shew it unto thee: then thou shalt go
forth with all thine army, and there shall be none of them that
shall resist thee.
And I will lead thee through the midst of Judea, until thou
come before Jerusalem; and I will set thy throne in the midst
thereof; and thou shalt drive them as sheep that have no
shepherd, and a dog shall not so much as open his mouth at thee:
for these things were told me according to my foreknowledge, and
they were declared unto me, and I am sent to tell thee.
Then her words pleased Holofernes and all his servants; and
they marvelled at her wisdom, and said,
There is not such a woman from one end of the earth to the
other, both for beauty of face, and wisdom of words.
Likewise Holofernes said unto her. God hath done well to send
thee before the people, that strength might be in our hands and
destruction upon them that lightly regard my lord.
And now thou art both beautiful in thy countenance, and witty
in thy words: surely if thou do as thou hast spoken thy God
shall be my God, and thou shalt dwell in the house of king
Nabuchodonosor, and shalt be renowned through the whole earth.
Then he commanded to bring her in where his plate was set;
and bade that they should prepare for her of his own meats, and
that she should drink of his own wine.
And Judith said, I will not eat thereof, lest there be an
offence: but provision shall be made for me of the things that I
Then Holofernes said unto her, If thy provision should fail,
how should we give thee the like? for there be none with us of
Then said Judith unto him As thy soul liveth, my lord, thine
handmaid shall not spend those things that I have, before the
Lord work by mine hand the things that he hath determined.
Then the servants of Holofernes brought her into the tent,
and she slept till midnight, and she arose when it was toward
the morning watch,
And sent to Holofernes, saving, Let my lord now command that
thine handmaid may go forth unto prayer.
Then Holofernes commanded his guard that they should not stay
her: thus she abode in the camp three days, and went out in the
night into the valley of Bethulia, and washed herself in a
fountain of water by the camp.
And when she came out, she besought the Lord God of Israel to
direct her way to the raising up of the children of her people.
So she came in clean, and remained in the tent, until she did
eat her meat at evening.
And in the fourth day Holofernes made a feast to his own
servants only, and called none of the officers to the banquet.
Then said he to Bagoas the eunuch, who had charge over all
that he had, Go now, and persuade this Hebrew woman which is
with thee, that she come unto us, and eat and drink with us.
For, lo, it will be a shame for our person, if we shall let
such a woman go, not having had her company; for if we draw her
not unto us, she will laugh us to scorn.
Then went Bagoas from the presence of Holofernes, and came to
her, and he said, Let not this fair damsel fear to come to my
lord, and to be honoured in his presence, and drink wine, and be
merry with us and be made this day as one of the daughters of
the Assyrians, which serve in the house of Nabuchodonosor.
Then said Judith unto him, Who am I now, that I should
gainsay my lord? surely whatsoever pleaseth him I will do
speedily, and it shall be my joy unto the day of my death.
So she arose, and decked herself with her apparel and all her
woman's attire, and her maid went and laid soft skins on the
ground for her over against Holofernes, which she had received
of Bagoas far her daily use, that she might sit and eat upon
Now when Judith came in and sat down, Holofernes his heart
was ravished with her, and his mind was moved, and he desired
greatly her company; for he waited a time to deceive her, from
the day that he had seen her.
Then said Holofernes unto her, Drink now, and be merry with
So Judith said, I will drink now, my lord, because my life is
magnified in me this day more than all the days since I was
Then she took and ate and drank before him what her maid had
And Holofernes took great delight in her, and drank more wine
than he had drunk at any time in one day since he was born.
Now when the evening was come, his servants made haste to
depart, and Bagoas shut his tent without, and dismissed the
waiters from the presence of his lord; and they went to their
beds: for they were all weary, because the feast had been long.
And Judith was left along in the tent, and Holofernes lying
along upon his bed: for he was filled with wine.
Now Judith had commanded her maid to stand without her
bedchamber, and to wait for her. coming forth, as she did daily:
for she said she would go forth to her prayers, and she spake to
Bagoas according to the same purpose.
So all went forth and none was left in the bedchamber,
neither little nor great. Then Judith, standing by his bed, said
in her heart, O Lord God of all power, look at this present upon
the works of mine hands for the exaltation of Jerusalem.
For now is the time to help thine inheritance, and to execute
thine enterprizes to the destruction of the enemies which are
risen against us.
Then she came to the pillar of the bed, which was at
Holofernes' head, and took down his fauchion from thence,
And approached to his bed, and took hold of the hair of his
head, and said, Strengthen me, O Lord God of Israel, this day.
And she smote twice upon his neck with all her might, and she
took away his head from him.
And tumbled his body down from the bed, and pulled down the
canopy from the pillars; and anon after she went forth, and gave
Holofernes his head to her maid;
And she put it in her bag of meat: so they twain went
together according to their custom unto prayer: and when they
passed the camp, they compassed the valley, and went up the
mountain of Bethulia, and came to the gates thereof.
Then said Judith afar off, to the watchmen at the gate, Open,
open now the gate: God, even our God, is with us, to shew his
power yet in Jerusalem, and his forces against the enemy, as he
hath even done this day.
Now when the men of her city heard her voice, they made haste
to go down to the gate of their city, and they called the elders
of the city.
And then they ran all together, both small and great, for it
was strange unto them that she was come: so they opened the
gate, and received them, and made a fire for a light, and stood
round about them.
Then she said to them with a loud voice, Praise, praise God,
praise God, I say, for he hath not taken away his mercy from the
house of Israel, but hath destroyed our enemies by mine hands
So she took the head out of the bag, and shewed it, and said
unto them, behold the head of Holofernes, the chief captain of
the army of Assur, and behold the canopy, wherein he did lie in
his drunkenness; and the Lord hath smitten him by the hand of a
As the Lord liveth, who hath kept me in my way that I went,
my countenance hath deceived him to his destruction, and yet
hath he not committed sin with me, to defile and shame me.
Then all the people were wonderfully astonished, and bowed
themselves and worshipped God, and said with one accord, Blessed
be thou, O our God, which hast this day brought to nought the
enemies of thy people.
Then said Ozias unto her, O daughter, blessed art thou of the
most high God above all the women upon the earth; and blessed be
the Lord God, which hath created the heavens and the earth,
which hath directed thee to the cutting off of the head of the
chief of our enemies.
For this thy confidence shall not depart from the heart of
men, which remember the power of God for ever.
And God turn these things to thee for a perpetual praise, to
visit thee in good things because thou hast not spared thy life
for the affliction of our nation, but hast revenged our ruin,
walking a straight way before our God. And all the people said;
So be it, so be it.
Then said Judith unto them, Hear me now, my brethren, and
take this head, and hang it upon the highest place of your
And so soon as the morning shall appear, and the sun shall
come forth upon the earth, take ye every one his weapons, and go
forth every valiant man out of the city, and set ye a captain
over them, as though ye would go down into the field toward the
watch of the Assyrians; but go not down.
Then they shall take their armour, and shall go into their
camp, and raise up the captains of the army of Assur, and shall
run to the tent of Holofernes, but shall not find him: then fear
shall fall upon them, and they shall flee before your face.
So ye, and all that inhabit the coast of Israel, shall pursue
them, and overthrow them as they go.
But before ye do these things, call me Achior the Ammonite,
that he may see and know him that despised the house of Israel,
and that sent him to us as it were to his death.
Then they called Achior out of the house of Ozias; and when
he was come, and saw the head of Holofernes in a man's hand in
the assembly of the people, he fell down on his face, and his
But when they had recovered him, he fell at Judith's feet,
and reverenced her, and said, Blessed art thou in all the
tabernacles of Juda, and in all nations, which hearing thy name
shall be astonished.
Now therefore tell me all the things that thou hast done in
these days. Then Judith declared unto him in the midst of the
people all that she had done, from the day that she went forth
until that hour she spake unto them.
And when she had left off speaking, the people shouted with a
loud voice, and made a joyful noise in their city.
And when Achior had seen all that the God of Israel had done,
he believed in God greatly, and circumcised the flesh of his
foreskin, and was joined unto the house of Israel unto this day.
And as soon as the morning arose, they hanged the head of
Holofernes upon the wall, and every man took his weapons, and
they went forth by bands unto the straits of the mountain.
But when the Assyrians saw them, they sent to their leaders,
which came to their captains and tribunes, and to every one of
So they came to Holofernes' tent, and said to him that had
the charge of all his things, Waken now our lord: for the slaves
have been bold to come down against us to battle, that they may
be utterly destroyed.
Then went in Bagoas, and knocked at the door of the tent; for
he thought that he had slept with Judith.
But because none answered, he opened it, and went into the
bedchamber, and found him cast upon the floor dead, and his head
was taken from him.
Therefore he cried with a loud voice, with weeping, and
sighing, and a mighty cry, and rent his garments.
After he went into the tent where Judith lodged: and when he
found her not, he leaped out to the people, and cried,
These slaves have dealt treacherously; one woman of the
Hebrews hath brought shame upon the house of king
Nabuchodonosor: for, behold, Holofernes lieth upon the ground
without a head.
When the captains of the Assyrians' army heard these words,
they rent their coats and their minds were wonderfully troubled,
and there was a cry and a very great noise throughout the camp.
And when they that were in the tents heard, they were
astonished at the thing that was done.
And fear and trembling fell upon them, so that there was no
man that durst abide in the sight of his neighbour, but rushing
out all together, they fled into every way of the plain, and of
the hill country.
They also that had camped in the mountains round about
Bethulia fled away. Then the children of Israel, every one that
was a warrior among them, rushed out upon them.
Then sent Ozias to Betomasthem, and to Bebai, and Chobai, and
Cola and to all the coasts of Israel, such as should tell the
things that were done, and that all should rush forth upon their
enemies to destroy them.
Now when the children of Israel heard it, they all fell upon
them with one consent, and slew them unto Chobai: likewise also
they that came from Jerusalem, and from all the hill country,
(for men had told them what things were done in the camp of
their enemies) and they that were in Galaad, and in Galilee,
chased them with a great slaughter, until they were past
Damascus and the borders thereof.
And the residue that dwelt at Bethulia, fell upon the camp of
Assur, and spoiled them, and were greatly enriched.
And the children of Israel that returned from the slaughter
had that which remained; and the villages and the cities, that
were in the mountains and in the plain, gat many spoils: for the
multitude was very great.
Then Joacim the high priest, and the ancients of the children
of Israel that dwelt in Jerusalem, came to behold the good
things that God had shewed to Israel, and to see Judith, and to
And when they came unto her, they blessed her with one
accord, and said unto her, Thou art the exaltation of Jerusalem,
thou art the great glory of Israel, thou art the great rejoicing
of our nation:
Thou hast done all these things by thine hand: thou hast done
much good to Israel, and God is pleased therewith: blessed be
thou of the Almighty Lord for evermore. And all the people said,
So be it.
And the people spoiled the camp the space of thirty days: and
they gave unto Judith Holofernes his tent, and all his plate,
and beds, and vessels, and all his stuff: and she took it and
laid it on her mule; and made ready her carts, and laid them
Then all the women of Israel ran together to see her, and
blessed her, and made a dance among them for her: and she took
branches in her hand, and gave also to the women that were with
And they put a garland of olive upon her and her maid that
was with her, and she went before all the people in the dance,
leading all the women: and all the men of Israel followed in
their armour with garlands, and with songs in their mouths.
Then Judith began to sing this thanksgiving in all Israel,
and all the people sang after her this song of praise.
And Judith said, Begin unto my God with timbrels, sing unto
my Lord with cymbals: tune unto him a new psalm: exalt him, and
call upon his name.
For God breaketh the battles: for among the camps in the
midst of the people he hath delivered me out of the hands of
them that persecuted me.
Assur came out of the mountains from the north, he came with
ten thousands of his army, the multitude whereof stopped the
torrents, and their horsemen have covered the hills.
He bragged that he would burn up my borders, and kill my
young men with the sword, and dash the sucking children against
the ground, and make mine infants as a prey, and my virgins as a
But the Almighty Lord hath disappointed them by the hand of a
For the mighty one did not fall by the young men, neither did
the sons of the Titans smite him, nor high giants set upon him:
but Judith the daughter of Merari weakened him with the beauty
of her countenance.
For she put off the garment of her widowhood for the
exaltation of those that were oppressed in Israel, and anointed
her face with ointment, and bound her hair in a tire, and took a
linen garment to deceive him.
Her sandals ravished his eyes, her beauty took his mind
prisoner, and the fauchion passed through his neck.
The Persians quaked at her boldness, and the Medes were
daunted at her hardiness.
Then my afflicted shouted for joy, and my weak ones cried
aloud; but they were astonished: these lifted up their voices,
but they were overthrown.
The sons of the damsels have pierced them through, and
wounded them as fugatives' children: they perished by the battle
of the Lord.
I will sing unto the Lord a new song: O Lord, thou art great
and glorious, wonderful in strength, and invincible.
Let all creatures serve thee: for thou spakest, and they were
made, thou didst send forth thy spirit, and it created them, and
there is none that can resist thy voice.
For the mountains shall be moved from their foundations with
the waters, the rocks shall melt as wax at thy presence: yet
thou art merciful to them that fear thee.
For all sacrifice is too little for a sweet savour unto thee,
and all the fat is not sufficient for thy burnt offering: but he
that feareth the Lord is great at all times.
Woe to the nations that rise up against my kindred! the Lord
Almighty will take vengeance of them in the day of judgment, in
putting fire and worms in their flesh; and they shall feel them,
and weep for ever.
Now as soon as they entered into Jerusalem, they worshipped
the Lord; and as soon as the people were purified, they offered
their burnt offerings, and their free offerings, and their
Judith also dedicated all the stuff of Holofernes, which the
people had given her, and gave the canopy, which she had taken
out of his bedchamber, for a gift unto the Lord.
So the people continued feasting in Jerusalem before the
sanctuary for the space of three months and Judith remained with
After this time every one returned to his own inheritance,
and Judith went to Bethulia, and remained in her own possession,
and was in her time honourable in all the country.
And many desired her, but none knew her all the days of her
life, after that Manasses her husband was dead, and was gathered
to his people.
But she increased more and more in honour, and waxed old in
her husband's house, being an hundred and five years old, and
made her maid free; so she died in Bethulia: and they buried her
in the cave of her husband Manasses.
And the house of Israel lamented her seven days: and before
she died, she did distribute her goods to all them that were
nearest of kindred to Manasses her husband, and to them that
were the nearest of her kindred.
And there was none that made the children of Israel any more
afraid in the days of Judith, nor a long time after her death.
Gentileschi, Susanna and the Elders c1640
of Daniel, Susanna and the Elders|
There dwelt a man in Babylon, called Joacim:
And he took a wife, whose name was Susanna, the daughter of
Chelcias, a very fair woman, and one that feared the Lord.
Her parents also were righteous, and taught their daughter
according to the law of Moses.
Now Joacim was a great rich man, and had a fair garden
joining unto his house: and to him resorted the Jews; because he
was more honourable than all others.
The same year were appointed two of the ancients of the
people to be judges, such as the Lord spake of, that wickedness
came from Babylon from ancient judges, who seemed to govern the
These kept much at Joacim's house: and all that had any suits
in law came unto them.
Now when the people departed away at noon, Susanna went into
her husband's garden to walk.
And the two elders saw her going in every day, and walking;
so that their lust was inflamed toward her.
And they perverted their own mind, and turned away their
eyes, that they might not look unto heaven, nor remember just
And albeit they both were wounded with her love, yet durst
not one shew another his grief.
For they were ashamed to declare their lust, that they
desired to have to do with her.
Yet they watched diligently from day to day to see her.
And the one said to the other, Let us now go home: for it is
So when they were gone out, they parted the one from the
other, and turning back again they came to the same place; and
after that they had asked one another the cause, they
acknowledged their lust: then appointed they a time both
together, when they might find her alone.
And it fell out, as they watched a fit time, she went in as
before with two maids only, and she was desirous to wash herself
in the garden: for it was hot.
And there was no body there save the two elders, that had hid
themselves, and watched her.
Then she said to her maids, Bring me oil and washing balls,
and shut the garden doors, that I may wash me.
And they did as she bade them, and shut the garden doors, and
went out themselves at privy doors to fetch the things that she
had commanded them: but they saw not the elders, because they
Now when the maids were gone forth, the two elders rose up,
and ran unto her, saying,
Behold, the garden doors are shut, that no man can see us,
and we are in love with thee; therefore consent unto us, and lie
If thou wilt not, we will bear witness against thee, that a
young man was with thee: and therefore thou didst send away thy
maids from thee.
Then Susanna sighed, and said, I am straitened on every side:
for if I do this thing, it is death unto me: and if I do it not
I cannot escape your hands.
It is better for me to fall into your hands, and not do it,
than to sin in the sight of the Lord.
With that Susanna cried with a loud voice: and the two elders
cried out against her.
Then ran the one, and opened the garden door.
So when the servants of the house heard the cry in the
garden, they rushed in at the privy door, to see what was done
But when the elders had declared their matter, the servants
were greatly ashamed: for there was never such a report made of
And it came to pass the next day, when the people were
assembled to her husband Joacim, the two elders came also full
of mischievous imagination against Susanna to put her to death;
And said before the people, Send for Susanna, the daughter of
Chelcias, Joacim's wife. And so they sent.
So she came with her father and mother, her children, and all
Now Susanna was a very delicate woman, and beauteous to
And these wicked men commanded to uncover her face, (for she
was covered) that they might be filled with her beauty.
Therefore her friends and all that saw her wept.
Then the two elders stood up in the midst of the people, and
laid their hands upon her head.
And she weeping looked up toward heaven: for her heart
trusted in the Lord.
And the elders said, As we walked in the garden alone, this
woman came in with two maids, and shut the garden doors, and
sent the maids away.
Then a young man, who there was hid, came unto her, and lay
Then we that stood in a corner of the garden, seeing this
wickedness, ran unto them.
And when we saw them together, the man we could not hold: for
he was stronger than we, and opened the door, and leaped out.
But having taken this woman, we asked who the young man was,
but she would not tell us: these things do we testify.
Then the assembly believed them as those that were the elders
and judges of the people: so they condemned her to death.
Then Susanna cried out with a loud voice, and said, O
everlasting God, that knowest the secrets, and knowest all
things before they be:
Thou knowest that they have borne false witness against me,
and, behold, I must die; whereas I never did such things as
these men have maliciously invented against me.
And the Lord heard her voice.
Therefore when she was led to be put to death, the Lord
raised up the holy spirit of a young youth whose name was
Who cried with a loud voice, I am clear from the blood of
Then all the people turned them toward him, and said, What
mean these words that thou hast spoken?
So he standing in the midst of them said, Are ye such fools,
ye sons of Israel, that without examination or knowledge of the
truth ye have condemned a daughter of Israel?
Return again to the place of judgment: for they have borne
false witness against her.
Wherefore all the people turned again in haste, and the
elders said unto him, Come, sit down among us, and shew it us,
seeing God hath given thee the honour of an elder.
Then said Daniel unto them, Put these two aside one far from
another, and I will examine them.
So when they were put asunder one from another, he called one
of them, and said unto him, O thou that art waxen old in
wickedness, now thy sins which thou hast committed aforetime are
come to light.
For thou hast pronounced false judgment and hast condemned
the innocent and hast let the guilty go free; albeit the Lord
saith, The innocent and righteous shalt thou not slay.
Now then, if thou hast seen her, tell me, Under what tree
sawest thou them companying together? Who answered, Under a
And Daniel said, Very well; thou hast lied against thine own
head; for even now the angel of God hath received the sentence
of God to cut thee in two.
So he put him aside, and commanded to bring the other, and
said unto him, O thou seed of Chanaan, and not of Juda, beauty
hath deceived thee, and lust hath perverted thine heart.
Thus have ye dealt with the daughters of Israel, and they for
fear companied with you: but the daughter of Juda would not
abide your wickedness.
Now therefore tell me, Under what tree didst thou take them
companying together? Who answered, Under an holm tree.
Then said Daniel unto him, Well; thou hast also lied against
thine own head: for the angel of God waiteth with the sword to
cut thee in two, that he may destroy you.
With that all the assembly cried out with a loud voice, and
praised God, who saveth them that trust in him.
And they arose against the two elders, for Daniel had
convicted them of false witness by their own mouth:
And according to the law of Moses they did unto them in such
sort as they maliciously intended to do to their neighbour: and
they put them to death. Thus the innocent blood was saved the
Therefore Chelcias and his wife praised God for their
daughter Susanna, with Joacim her husband, and all the kindred,
because there was no dishonesty found in her.
From that day forth was Daniel had in great reputation in the
sight of the people.
al.le.go.ry n, pl -ries [ME allegorie, fr. L allegoria, fr. Gk allegoria, fr. allegorein to speak figuratively, fr. allos other + -egorein to speak publicly, fr. agora assembly--more at else, agora] (14c) 1: the expression by means of symbolic fictional figures and actions of truths or generalizations about human existence; also: an instance (as in a story or painting) of such expression 2: a symbolic representation: emblem 2 apoc.ry.pha n pl but sing or pl in constr [ML, fr. LL, neut. pl. of apocryphus secret, not canonical, fr. Gk apokryphos obscure, fr. apokryptein to hide away, fr. apo- + kryptein to hide--more at crypt] (14c) 1: writings or statements of dubious authenticity 2 cap a: books included in the Septuagint and Vulgate but excluded from the Jewish and Protestant canons of the Old Testament b: early Christian writings not included in the New Testament apoc.ry.phal adj (1590) 1: of doubtful authenticity: spurious 2 often cap: of or resembling the Apocrypha syn see fictitious -- apoc.ry.phal.ly adv -- apoc.ry.phal.ness n
genre n [F, fr. MF, kind, gender--more at gender] (1770) 1: a category of artistic, musical, or literary composition characterized by a particular style, form, or content 2: kind, sort 3: painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usu. realistically ten.e.brism n, often cap [L tenebrae darkness] (1954): a style of painting esp. associated with the Italian painter Caravaggio and his followers in which most of the figures are engulfed in shadow but some are dramatically illuminated by a concentrated beam of light usu. from an identifiable source -- ten.e.brist n or adj, often cap according to the Brittanica,
"in the history of Western painting, the use of extreme contrasts of light and dark in figurative compositions to heighten their dramatic effect. (The term is derived from the Latin tenebrae, "darkness.") In tenebrist paintings the figures are often portrayed against a background of intense darkness, but the figures themselves are illuminated by a bright, searching light that sets off their three-dimensional forms by a harsh but exquisitely controlled chiaroscuro . The technique was introduced by the Italian painter Caravaggio (1571?-1610) and was taken up in the early 17th century by painters influenced by him, including the French painter Georges de La Tour, the Dutch painters Gerrit van Honthorst and Hendrik Terbrugghen, and the Spanish painter Francisco de Zurbarán."